Luminous fish

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Luminous fish are a product of transgenic technology. The glow-in-the-dark glow of living organisms that don’t have it isn’t the only scientific advance. Maybe it’s beautiful. It’s certainly original. But there are two sides to every coin. Let’s get to the bottom of it.

Transgenic technologies are entering our lives without our consent. The appearance of these or those modified objects is dictated not so much by safety or necessity as by commercial profit. The desire to work less and get more money is understandable and in most cases justified, but there must be a limit to everything. Genetic engineering has not bypassed and aquarium pets. Although this application is probably the most harmless.

Glow fish Who is the author?

GloFish is a trademark of Yorktown Technologies LP, an American company. Under the GloFish brand name GM fluorescent fish are sold in America. The official producer of fluorescent fish (TK-1, TK-2, TK-3) is Taiwanese Taikong Corporation. The first genetically modified fish were danio rerio and medaka.

Transgenic organisms first appeared on the market in 2003 in Taiwan and other Asian countries. By 2005, their sales began in the United States and Slavic countries. All of this company’s products are supposed to be marketed sterilized. But whether it is a mistake of technology. Or whether the manufacturer decided to save money on this procedure, in Russia and Ukraine is a lot of descendants of these fish received by amateurs.

Genetically modified danio rerio are distinguished by their fluorescent coloration. To date, there are red, green, orange (yellow), blue and violet colors. Fluorescence is more noticeable in ultraviolet light.

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Luminous fish or eat first?

Initially, experiments to change the genetic code of fish were aimed at improving commercial fish. Experiments were conducted to insert a gene into the genome of Pacific salmon that accelerates their growth.

It was necessary to have a living organism in which the action of the embedded gene could be observed without special complex technical means. Such an organism turned out to be danio rerio, as its embryo and fry, and sometimes adult fish (with weakened pigmentation) are almost transparent. And the effect of the protein could be observed even if the production of the protein controlled by the transgene was deep in the tissues of the animal.

The gene accordingly also had to show its action at the early stages of organism development and this action had to be visible either to the naked eye or with the help of a minimum of technical means. In 1999, Zhiyuan Gong First and his colleagues from the National University of Singapore worked with the gene green fluorescent protein (GFP), which in nature is only in some Pacific jellyfish (Aequorea Victoria). Thanks to which the jellyfish in the dark emits a faint green glow. Danio rerio that received a DNA fragment from the jellyfish have green coloration.

флуоресцентная медака

Commercial acumen has assessed the potential of Luminous fish

At a scientific conference, a representative of a company that breeds and sells aquarium fish saw a photograph of transgenic organisms. By order of the company in the genome of danio rerio was embedded in the gene, isolated from sea coral, which is responsible for the red glow. Red coloration have fish that received the gene from the coral (Discosoma). Yellow or transgenic ternecia orange coloration have individuals in the DNA, which implanted both of the above-mentioned genes.

In the USA, transgenic organisms have been tried to be used as living indicators, which were supposed to change their color when the environment changed. Similar attempts to create an indicator organism have been made before, but the response of a living organism to a toxic substance still has a significant delay and such technologies are unlikely to ever find practical application.

светяаяся скалярия
светяаяся скалярия

Rather, it looks like a weak attempt to justify spending taxpayers’ money on experiments that are useless and sometimes even harmful to the same taxpayers. In 2003, scientists and businessmen signed the first contract, as a result of which genetically modified fish appeared on the market under the brand name GloFish.

Luminous fish known varietals

To date, the following colors of luminous fish are known: Starfire Red, Electric Green, Sunburst Orange, Cosmic Blue, and Galactic Purple. All of these fish have been genetically engineered. Recombinant DNA from various marine corals was used to produce these fish.

В 2012 году таким же способом по заказу той же фирмы была получена флуоресцентная тернеция. Сейчас есть сообщения о появлении ГМ цихлид.

Legal aspects in regions of the world

The breeding, exchange and sale of GloFish® fluorescent fish is strictly prohibited by the GURT Commission. Possession, breeding, exchange and sale are illegal in California, Canada and within the European Union.

ГМ лосось на заднем плане(возраст одинаковый)

Regardless, there is a GM salmon farm in the US. This is the same development mentioned earlier. The live weight gain of genetically modified salmon is three to four times faster than that of the natural form.

The farm has a population of several thousand individuals. That’s impressive. The owners of the farm claim that the meat of this salmon is used exclusively for making pet food. But is this true?

The very appearance of genetically modified aquarium fish in the countries of the former Soviet Union indicates that at that time there were no legislative acts prohibiting the import of genetically modified objects into the country.As for the scientific and technical base for determining the products of genetic engineering. There are no laboratories capable of conducting a full-fledged analysis even now!

возможно?!?!? кто знает?!?!?

In addition to GM salmon, there are references to the existence of GM carp, GM trout and a number of other commercial fish. Let’s remember now about vegetables that can lie just on the balcony in the summer heat and not spoil for two or three weeks, and make a conclusion about genetic safety. Glowing fish are just in plain sight and can be distinguished with the naked eye. The rest can only be guessed at.

There’s no stopping progress, but!

There is no stopping scientific and technological progress. Heart surgery was once strictly forbidden. But unsuccessful heart surgery is a catastrophe of only one person, who is also immensely sorry. Genetic technologies, in my opinion, can interfere in the whole gene pool of planet Earth and change it. We are still too poorly versed in this technology and have a very vague idea of the possible consequences of its use. It seems to me that the use of these technologies outside the laboratory is somewhat premature. There is no doubt that transgenic technologies can and should benefit humans. This will be the case if human beings do not forget to observe genetic safety.

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