Rules for healthy aquarium

Грунт для аквариума

Life in the aquatic environment develops according to its own laws. Learn the basic rules for healthy aquarium. Special equipment (heater, filter, compressor, artificial light, additional equipment).

You have long dreamed of this “water oasis” in the middle of your apartment and, finally, here it is – the long-awaited aquarium with fish. But a few weeks pass, the water in it has become cloudy, the fish are dying, and the plants are clearly lacking something. What to do?

Life in the aquarium develops according to its own rules. If you are not familiar with them, the aquarium, instead of giving positive emotions, will only irritate you.

Rules for healthy aquarium

  1. Do not overload the aquarium with fish. To calculate the number of fish, use this ratio: per 1 cm of fish length (tail fin in the calculation do not take into account) should be 0.7 liters of water. For example, let’s find out how many liters of water will require a flock of fire barbs of 7 pieces. The length of the adult fish reaches 8 cm. When calculating, we get: 8 cm * 7 pcs * 0.7 l = 39.2 l But, given the fact that barbs are gregarious fish, and the leader is sure to capture a large part of the aquarium, the weakest fish will be left very little space for swimming. Therefore, such a flock should be planted in an aquarium of 45 liters.
  2. About a quarter of the total volume of the aquarium should be taken up by plants. They not only serve a decorative function, they also absorb nitrates.
  3. The composition of the water determines to a large extent how comfortable the fish and plants will be. The vast majority of fish like soft water, for this purpose tap water is diluted with distilled water. Optimal pH environment for most fish: 6,5-7,5. Alkalize the water with baking soda (if necessary). If acidification is necessary, use tincture of peat. Water should be changed weekly (not more than 30%, but also not less than 10% of the total volume). If you change a third of the water, do it not at once, but in two steps, so that the chemical composition of the water does not change too sharply.
  4. Do not overfeed the fish. Firstly, it will not make them develop better. Secondly, excess food disturbs the balance of the biological system of the aquarium. At first, while you have not yet decided on the size of the portion, it is better to feed a few times a little. Fish should eat their “lunch” in no more than 5 minutes.
  5. Observe the condition of the fish and plants. Do fish seem sleepy, gulp air near the surface of the water, and behave unusually? Seek the help of a specialist. Vegetation can also tell you a lot about the life of your fish. You should be alerted to changes in the coloration of the leaflets, as well as twisting and crumbling of the leaf laminae.

Rules for healthy aquarium Important details

  • Types of aquarium fish that will not cause much trouble for the novice aquarist: swordfish, mottled catfish, cardinal, ternecia, scarlet barb, erythrosonus, blue and black neon, pecilia.
  • To prevent your fish from getting sick, check the pH of the water. You can find aquarium tests on sale, but do not forget that they have a certain expiration date. Daily fluctuations of the pH parameter can vary between 0.5 and 1.
  • The best temperature for fish and algae life is 24-26°C. The warmer the water, the less oxygen can dissolve in it. In warm water, the metabolic processes of living organisms, including fish, are faster, so they grow faster and age faster.
  • Under natural conditions, the water is constantly stirring. This process normalizes the gas exchange (oxygen – carbon dioxide) and balances the pH at the surface and at the bottom. The more fish in the aquarium, the more oxygen they need. A compressor, also known as an air pump, is an excellent way of saturating the water with air oxygen.

Aquarium equipment Rules for healthy aquarium

For most fish, tropical water temperatures are comfortable, so heating the water is essential. A thermoregulator will help to automatically maintain the set temperature. The device should be selected based on the volume of the aquarium.

The amount of dissolved minerals in the water also affects fish and algae. Ammonia, a poisonous gas, is in the water due to the decomposition of food residues and fish excrement.

The filter purifies water in three ways: mechanical, chemical, biological. Some filters are combined with a compressor.

The aerator increases the amount of oxygen in the water, increases ground flow, and equalizes water temperature. The smaller the size of the air bubbles coming out of the atomizer, the more dissolved O2 in the water.

Artificial light

Light is necessary for both plants and fish. As a rule, aquariums are illuminated with fluorescent lamps (at the rate of 0.5-1 W per 1 liter of water). More suitable for this purpose phytolamps, if there is no such, use lamps with “warm” light. Upper lighting is most preferable, as it imitates natural light. There are many models of aquariums in which the lid is equipped with a lamp. 8-10 hours of intense illumination per day is usually sufficient, but there are plants and fish that have different light requirements.

Additional inventory:

  • Hose. It is required for refilling and draining water (can be equipped with a pump and siphon nozzle).
  • The fish feeder prevents the food from spreading on the surface of the water.
  • A net is needed for catching and transferring fish.
  • The thermometer helps to control the temperature setting.

Hopefully, these recommendations will help avoid the basic mistakes of novice aquarists and protect them from disappointment.

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